text editors


vim is a very popular file editor, especially among programmers. It’s actively developed and frequently updated, and there’s a very big community around it.

vi in modern systems is just an alias to vim , which means vi im proved. You start it by running vi on the command line.

You can specify a filename at invocation time to edit that specific file:

vi test.txt

You have to know that Vim has 2 main modes:

When you start the editor, you are in command mode. You can’t enter text like you expect from a GUI-based editor. You have to enter insert mode. You can do this by pressing the i key. Once you do so, the -- INSERT -- word appear at the bottom of the editor.

Now you can start typing and filling the screen with the file contents.

You can move around the file with the arrow keys, or using the h -j -k - l keys. h-l for left-right,j-k for down-up. Once you are done editing you can press the esc key to exit insert mode, and go back to command mode.

At this point you can navigate the file, but you can’t add content to it (and be careful which keys you press as they might be commands).

One thing you might want to do now is saving the file. You can do so by pressing : (colon), then w .

You can save and quit pressing : then w and q : :wq

You can quit without saving, pressing : then q and ! : :q!

You can undo and edit by going to command mode and pressing u . You can redo (cancel an undo) by pressing ctrl-r .

Those are the basics of working with Vim. From here starts a rabbit hole we can’t go into in this little introduction.

I will only mention those commands that will get you started editing with Vim:

To find out more about Vim try running vimtutor command,which sholud be already installed in your system.


emacs is an awesome editor and it’s historically regarded as the editor for UNIX systems. Famously vi vs emacs flame wars and heated discussions caused many unproductive hours for developers around the world. emacs is very powerful.

it is` not usually installed in the some linux distro. so,you can install it using

sudo apt-get install emacs

You can open a new emacs session simply by invoking emacs in the command line.

You can also edit an existing file calling emacs <filename>.You can start editing and once you are done, press ctrl-x followed by ctrl-w . You confirm the folder and Emacs tell you the file exists, asking you if it should overwrite it Answer y , and you get a confirmation of success.

You can exit Emacs pressing ctrl-x followed byctrl-c . Or ctrl-x followed byc (keep ctrl pressed).

There is a lot to know about Emacs. More than I am able to write in this little introduction. I encourage you to open Emacs and press ctrl-h r to open the built-in manual and ctrl-h t to open the official tutorial.

Copy,cut and paste shortcuts:

Ctrl + dCut the character at the position of cursor.
ESC dCut the word till next blank space from the current position.
Ctrl + kCut till end of the line from current position.
Ctrl + @Mark the current position as beginning for copy.
ESC wcopy area between mark and cursor to paste.
Ctrl + yYank or Paste the recently copied or cut characters at the current position of cursor.

Moving cursor:

Ctrl + aBeginning of the line.
Ctrl + eEnd of line.
Ctrl + fMove forward by one character.
Ctrl + bMove back by one character.
Ctrl + nMove cursor to next line.
Ctrl + pCursor to previous line.
ESC >End of the buffer.
ESC <Starting of the buffer.
ESC fMove forward by one word.
ESC bMove back by one word.

Miscellaneous shortcuts:

Ctrl + zStop Emacs and quit immediately without confirmation(All changes in buffer are lost).
Ctrl + gCancel current command and revert back from command mode.
Ctrl + x uundo the last command.
Ctrl + x ctrl + cSave and quit.
Ctrl + h iHelp in Emacs- describes emacs shortcuts and commands.

Search and Replace:

Ctrl + sSearch forward- prompts for a search terms and search it in the buffer from current cursor position to the end of the buffer.
Ctrl + rSearch backwards/reverse- prompts for a search term and search from current position to the beginning of the buffer.
ESC %Replace- prompts for a search term and a replacement term and replaces the first occurrence of the word in buffer after cursor.


This is a another powerful command line text editor.This is also powerful and quite a useful text editor.

Mostly linux distro and macOS already have this editor installed.that you can chcek using:

nano --version

if you see that tell you the version then it is already installed in case if doesn’t show then you can install using this:

sudo apt-get install nano

The main syntax to open Nano and to edit a certain file is:

nano filename

However, if you are in another folder, and you want to open a file (demo.txt) in /path/to/directory, you can enter this line instead:

nano /path/to/directory/demo.txt

If you enter a file name and that file is not present in the directory, Nano will create a new file. Meanwhile, if you only execute the nano command without specifying the file name, the Nano text editor will create an empty untitled file and ask for a name when you exit the editor.

After running the nano command, a new window will pop up where you can freely edit the file. Just use the arrow keys on your keyboard to move the cursor around the text.

At the bottom of the window, you can find some shortcuts to use with the Nano editor. The “^” (caret) means that you must press CTRL (Windows) or control (macOS) to use the chosen command. Here are a few examples.

Basic Nano Text Editor Commands

We have compiled the most useful commands to help you utilize the Nano text editor more effectively.

CTRL + ALets you jump to the beginning of the line.
CTRL + GA Help window will pop out and show you all the available commands.
CTRL + ELets you to jump to the end of the line.
CTRL + YScrolls page down
CTRL + VScrolls page up
CTRL + OTo save the file. Nano will ask you to edit or verify the desired file name.
CTRL + WSearch for a specified phrase in your text. Press ALT + W to search for the same phrase again.
CTRL + KIt cuts the entire selected line to the cut buffer (similar to clipboard).
CTRL + UTo paste the text from the cut buffer into the selected line.
CTRL + JJustifies the current paragraph.
CTRL + CShows the current cursor position in the text (line/column/character).
CTRL + ROpens a file and inserts it at the current cursor position.
CTRL + XTo exit Nano text editor. It prompts a save request if you made any changes to the file.
“CTRL + ”Replaces string or a regular expression.
CTRL + TInvokes the spell checker, if available.
CTRL + _Lets you go to the specified line and column number.
ALT + ATo select text. You can combine this command with CTRL + K to cut a specific part of the text to the cut buffer.